Why learning from PowerPoint lectures is frustrating

I’m in my third year of college now, and by this point I have the hang of determining what constitutes a good class and a bad class. In a good class, I have fun and learn a lot; in a bad class, I don’t have a good time and don’t learn very much. For me, receiving a good grade has nothing to do with whether the class is good or not. My first instinct is to judge a class’s quality on the material: my freshman year, I enjoyed my Japanese classes much more than my English classes, because reading literature and writing papers about it doesn’t excite me nearly as much as learning about Japanese pop culture does. However, subject matter being equal, the biggest influence on the quality of the class, and sometimes the most frustrating, is the teaching style of the professor. Some students just learn better from different styles of teaching than others. Recently I came to the conclusion that I do not learn well from classes in which the lectures are based on PowerPoint presentations.

Professors who use PowerPoint tend to present topics very quickly when they don’t have to do anything but talk. If every example and every diagram is on the screen, there isn’t much time for me to take notes on the subject of each slide. Lectures aided by chalkboard visuals are easier to take notes from because I can write what the professor writes on the board at the same time. Also, because there is usually more chalkboard space than screen space, if I am behind on note-taking, the visual will probably still be on the board for me to copy a few minutes later. A lot of professors try to solve this problem by handing out the lecture slides before class, or by posting them online. While this is great for a lot of students, it doesn’t work for me because I learn best and am most engaged if I have to take notes as if my grade depended on having a great record of the class and I would never see the material again. In classes with handouts, I tend to zone out and have to work harder to pay attention. Studies have shown[pdf] that taking high-quality notes improves organic memory: I rarely use my notes after the lecture because the act of physically writing information down helps me remember more of what goes on in class.

Another problem with PowerPoint in class is that many textbooks now come with ready-made PowerPoint lectures for each chapter. The problem is that when the professor does not make the presentation, they run the risk of sounding like they don’t know what they’re talking about. My current Operating Systems professor suffers from this. As each new slide comes up, he takes a second to read it and then starts with, “Okay, what this slide is talking about is …” or “What they mean by this is …” As opposed to explaining the material himself, it sounds like he just expects us to read the slides, and then let him elaborate. The primary instruction comes from the slides, and he just backs it up. The best professors, in my opinion, give primary instruction themselves, and let the screen be the backup. At first I thought this man was just a lame professor, but it wasn’t until he decided to lecture on a topic outside the textbook that I realized he really did know what he was talking about; it was just that the slides were holding him back.

I understand that there are times when having PowerPoint slides are appropriate, and even absolutely necessary. I can’t imagine taking an art history class, for example, without works of art being presented on a screen to the class. However, there are cases that could go either way. In quantitative classes where half the lecture might consist of doing example problems, the temptation exists for professors to put entire problems in the slides. This makes the presentation easy for the professor, because he or she doesn’t have to take extra time to draw the problem on the board. Also, by taking extra time to prep the slides, it’s less likely that there might be mistakes made in class by students or professors (I’m sure we’ve all spent hours wondering what happened with that example problem that just went awry.) What helps me most, though, is doing problems step by step as a class. When it’s all finished for you, the steps taken to find the solution are harder to follow. When I’m taking notes, I can make step-by-step instructions I can use for homework later.

This is to say nothing of professors who just don’t know how to use PowerPoint well, a problem that is by no means limited to college classes. So for you professors out there tempted to lessen your workload by making one presentation you can use for the rest of your tenure, please reconsider. I will thank you for it.

Update (2/6/10): If you liked this article, you may wish to read my follow up on what kind of lecture I do prefer.

  • Rob

    Taking copious notes is not necessarily the most effective way to retain information. For example, in my calculus I and II classes (I had the same professor for both), the professor actually requested that nobody take any notes. Instead, he challenged us to learn by watching him work various problems on the board. I took the challenge and got an A both times–without writing down a single note on paper either semester.

    Here’s another tip: If you have access to one, do your homework on a white board instead of paper. This helped me feel less concerned about making mistakes because they were so easy to erase and I wasn’t concerned about running out of erasers, or lead, or paper (and I feel that freely making and fixing mistakes is an excellent way to learn).

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  • David H Dennis

    For a while, I worked for a CMU Chemistry professor who had a very cool system.

    He had a tablet computer, and he wrote on the tablet while lecturing, projecting the image of the screen. He would record the lecture using Camtasia (a screen capture program) and post the captured file after class.

    I thought it was a very clever use of technology.

    However, to be fair, it took an immense amount of time and energy for him and his small staff to prepare for the lectures. I don’t think it helped his research at all to take so much time on the actual teaching part …

    D

  • bp

    I really think it depends on the type of material/course you’re teaching. I’m a graphic design professor, and use Keynote presentations to show design examples. I wrote all the lectures myself, so I am familiar with the material, but use the slides as a reminder of each point I would like to make. I can see where chalkboards can be used to solve equations, but this would be very hard in a graphic design course. Handing out tons of high quality prints is expensive, not to mention a waste of trees.

    I have my lectures available to download, so the students can keep them for a later date. This does not excuse their absence. There is still a lot of information the student will miss by not attending the lecture. I have started including in-class exercises. I found myself up there talking for 3 hrs, because I felt there was so much info to cover. I would lose the students after 45 minutes.

    People learn by doing (true with most anything), not just listening. I’ve started replacing lecture time, with exercises that would illustrate the concepts while the students work through the problems. This is especially true with Graphic Design. You’re not going to become a better designer by listening someone talk about it. You’re going to get better by doing it yourself, and practicing the concepts. Upon the completion of the exercises, we critique the work as a class. This takes pressure off of me having to talk the whole time.

    Great post by the way.

  • A proud Professor

    Reg: Power Point presentation

    First of all I used to create my slides using Harvard Graphics which I still use. The best presentation software I have ever seen. I also have Art Explosion 8 Mil clip arts CDs and
    Corel Draw.
    When I teach a course, it takes me anywhere between60-80 hours to prepare my slides each week. I do not find any really student friendly text book ( a few exception found recently). Most books are written to get a promotion and only one or two chapters are well written as those are the area of research of the writer. These books are written to get tenure and promotion. Also, the publishers pay a nominal sum of $150/- or so for reviewers ( I have a few myself and refused to do any more). The books have more conceptual-data -content specific problems. Unless a reviewer is paid substantially, these problems and the solutions or directions to guide the author to rewrite never takes place. Thousands of books are printed and a very few are good. Best
    teachers do not write books and best writers do not teach (statistically speaking). Thus, when you really want your students to learn and excel in their life, I had to kill myself. So, using my HG software I use to create my notes almost like a text book. I give several real life examples and tested material. My students love those slides. I also use the black board (or white board) to introduce related material and example, which the students copy or add to the slides. These are different at different times and created on the fly. Most of them are original and really connect the subject matter and the examples which I could not think in advance. The whole class is dynamic. Also I give a large number of study material but avoid ask question from them. All my slides have pictures/graphs/scenarios to solidify the concepts and remove the fear of ‘misunderstanding’. My students gave the best teacher letter etc. But the administration never acknowledged and appreciated my contribution, creativity, lecturing and engaging my students to excel. While it did not bother me, they wanted me to get outside funding without providing any support. I finally realized that the research I do can be used in my consulting and quit my teaching to become an entrepreneur. I am happy and give industrial seminars and never want to go back to teach at any place. I am in the process of patenting some of my research in teaching and setup a network of learning centers.

    Students from the West use their right hemisphere (visual) and from the east are verbal. If the slides are properly created by the professor (not obtained from the publisher), that is a win-win. Classes are in general composed of international students and satisfying all of them is next to impossible. I considered my students as my customers – paid the fees and spent the time and there were entitled the best education.My teaching was oriented towards the 8-% of average students (not the top 10% or the bottom 10%) and they are the back bone of this country as workers, tax payers and good citizens. Between 5-10% of students can never be satisfied, because they are immature, don’t see the long term consequence of learning and wishfully thinking that their degree is the passport of 60-80k jobs. The East is taking them all from these spoiled generation. At least for the next 25-30 years the suffering will continue until some one turns the clock back to old days and ways of learning any subject seriously and try to apply all the related areas of knowledge in their job and in their personal life, rather than blaming professors. Every teaching method and style has its pluses and minuses and there is no fool proof way of satisfying all the students.

  • Ben

    I can definitely relate! I’ve had my fair share of PowerPoint professors… but some of them were actually very good. I knew one who used slides that were ~80% pictures for her lectures, and then elaborated or did example problems on the chalk board.

    My solution to the note taking problem is to print out the slides (usually cramming ~6 into each page, and printing double sided), and then take notes and record sample problems in the margins. (In practice, this is mostly writing down things the professor SAYS that aren’t in the slides.) I use red pen to make them stand out.

    Btw, that was a very well-written article… seems like those English classes are paying off!

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  • MrNightLifeLover

    > I can’t imagine taking an art history class, for example, without works of art being
    > presented on a screen to the class

    Aehm what about the classes before there were projectors in the class rooms? I remember history was also quite interesting w/o this. We had the texts in front of us and somebody had to read it loud, following a discussion after a larger paragraph. Sometimes the teacher noted something on the blackboard.. I don’t agree here history can be taught w/o PPT very efficiently.

  • kikito

    This makes no sense.

    Powerpoint is a tool. So are handouts. And the chalkboard.

    As tools, they have their uses and places.

    Chalkboards are *slow*. That isn’t “good” or “bad”, per se. Lectures that require lots of complex, difficult to draw figures (such as a dissertation about art) are better done with powerpoint and slides. Waiting for the teacher to draw every detail of that doric capital is boooooring.

    Powerpoint and handouts are *fast*. That isn’t either “good” or “bad” – it’s just more suitable for presenting other types of information.

    Some people in these comments seem to think that powerpoint and chalkboards can’t be used at the same time. That is nonsense. Put the proyector on the right, and the chalkboard on the right, dammit.

    It seems to me that Carol has just had encountered teachers that didn’t know how to use Powerpoint. So she came to the conclusion that Powerpoint lectures are bad. That is unfortunate, but the conclusion she arrived to is wrong.

    I had the “pleasure” of suffering some really awful teachers when I studied at the University… and their chalkboard expertise was plain horrid. Interestingly, other classes where really good (some of them were power-point based, mind you).

    Mi conclussion was that there are no “good” or “bad” tools, just good or bad teachers.

  • keg

    Good points. as a professor, I’ve gradually moved away from PowerPoint for most things. I think that PowerPoint was kind of crutch for me – it’s easy and pre-prepared (by me – I didn’t use the ones that came with the textbook). I find since I’ve stopped using PP, students participate more, ask more questions, and generally seem to be having a better time. I no longer even have a computer in my classroom, but if I did, I think I would use it for presenting visual stimuli – diagrams, pictures, etc. Right now, I’m forced to use an overhead for those things and it is endlessly annoying and archaic…

  • http://www.animaster-talks.net animaster

    True, PowerPoint should not be blamed. I think PowerPoint should only be used as a tool to support the lecturer. He/she should not rely merely on the PPT.

  • Saneman

    I have taught CS for 12 years. In my experience, there is simply no good substitute for good lecture skill on the part of the instructor and good note taking skill on the part of the student. Powerpoints and other media are good supporting material to cover the larger points that help the student recall the context of the lecture material, but they cannot be lecture material itself. If presentation media such as powerpoint is so powerful a tool, then I’d ask– Is the powerpoint an adjunct to the face to face experience, or is the face to face experience an adjunt to the powerpoint ?

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  • Joe Elwell

    I’m a CS student currently taking a class on operating systems from a professor. This professor simply opens a text document, and generates talking points and details/notes in an organized fashion as he lectures. Once finished, he saves the doc, which is already linked to his class web page. He of course, uses the whiteboard to illustrate concepts better done outside text.
    What I see in the class is that almost no one takes notes, or at least very few. His resulting text file is a copious set of notes we are already familiar with and are a great reference. We spend almost all of our time in class concentrating on his lecture and participating. Great technique.
    Joe

  • Joe Elwell

    BTW, on the previous comment, the text file is displayed on a screen in front of the class as he types into it.

  • http://faculty.oxy.edu/prothero Donald Prothero

    I’ve been teaching for more than 30 years, most of them in the pre-Powerpoint era. I teach geology, which is a HIGHLY visual subject, so I relied on 35 mm slides for most of the first 20 years. I tried to write things on the board when possible, but most of the comments on my slides were not recorded, and students got just one chance to see them and make notes before I moved on. Earlier in this decade, I switched over each of my classes to Powerpoint once we had a new building with VGA projection in every classroom. Having seen many bad Powerpoint talks in the past, I deliberately try to pace the lectures slower so that students can absorb each slide, and put in a handful of text slides here and there for important things that need to be written out–but NO long text slides that I expect them to read. I frequently break from the slide sequence to turn up the lights and write or draw the really important stuff on the board, so that I make sure to give them time to get it all in their notes. Once the lecture is over, I post each Powerpoint on the shared server for the college, so they can access them at any time before the exam.
    As a result, I’ve seen almost nothing but positive results. My student evaluations have been overwhelmingly positive since I switched to Powerpoint. More encouraging, the test scores have been steadily improving, since students can now study and restudy my lectures before an exam, rather than rely on their ability to take notes the first and only time they see my slides and lecture. (BTW, I would NEVER take a canned Powerpoint from anyone else to use in my own class. Every lecture is my own, custom tailored to my emphasis on what is important).
    As others have commented, Powerpoint is simply a tool. It can be easily abused, but if you know how to use it, and recognize the difference between a class lecture and a rushed 15-minute professional talk, it can be done properly. It has made my job MUCH easier, and my students’ improving comprehension of the material is all the proof I need that it was a big step forward.

  • http://www.geoffsmith.org geoff

    No question about this….I believe, firmly, that power point is a plaything of the devil, right up there with the highlighter in puce and chartreuse and other gross colours. In both cases technology takes the place of learning, and technology fails to reach students’ brains–at least the part that strains and works to learn. I detest power point and would recommend any beginning teacher to use it sparingly, if at all. A crutch it is, a rubber crutch, not useful for anything……

  • rfd

    I am a professor at a small university. I have also done a bit of TV production. Nearly all uses of powerpoint seriously violate the principles of good visuals and, I think, are really boring. One does not need to use the cute effects just because they can in powerpoint.

    There is (or should be) a major opening for consultants to teach the professors how to prepare good powerpoint visuals.

    In my classes, I generally use whiteboard presentations. Seeing the process of writing the chemical structures and equations is important for the students to learn to do do for themselves. If they see them cleanly and professionally drawn on a slide they don;t readily learn to do their own very well. When I do use some sort of visual, I project onto the whiteboard itself so I can write my notes directly at significant sections of the projected image.

  • Bill Stewart

    Back in the long-long-ago 1970s, when I had to walk through the deep snow uphill both ways to get to university (hey, it was Cornell, if the snow wasn’t deep I’d bicycle), before PowerPoint was a gleam in some developer’s eye, professors had this technology called “Overhead Projectors”. You wrote your slides on transparent plastic, and the projector shone light through them to project them on a screen. It had some of the advantages and disadvantages of Powerpoint, the resolution was generally worse, but you could write them in real-time, and many professors did that instead of chalkboards. While there were pre-printed transparencies, they were rare. In the early 80s, we’d often type our transparencies; in the late 80s we’d troff them and print them on a laser printer.

    It sounds like one of the biggest problems isn’t the medium – it’s using canned presentations written by somebody else that don’t say what you need to be saying right now. I spent much of the late 90s and 00s doing engineering presentations, and using the marketing folks’ powerpoints usually meant that the pictures were pretty, but it was still important to steal the slides you need and write the glue between them so they actually say what you want to say.

  • K

    Thanks for this – I teach college and my students complain that I don’t give use or powerpoints out. This means they have to -gasp!- take notes, which is becoming more and more of a foreign concept to them. I was also marked down by a peer evaluator solely for that – several pages of my evaluation were about how I should be using powerpoints. The pace of the lecture is good, my command of the classroom is good, but I need to use powerpoint. Blech.

    I don’t believe powerpoints should be made available unless there is no textbook. I personally think it’s a rip-off if the students buy a textbook for almost $200, and then I just make the same information available to them in a powerpoint for (virtually) free. But I am not allowed to use some images and charts unless the students have been assigned the book, so it is not even like I can get rid of the text altogether.

    Me, I will save some trees and not use powerpoints. At least you can sell the book to someone else when you are finished.

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  • Londoner

    Powerpoint recently hit its 25th birthday – the BBC did an interesting article on the problems and irritations with its [mis]use:

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/8207849.stm

  • http://averagepink.blogspot.com Pipo

    Ah. I remember when I was in my freshman in college my professor in my Social, Economic and Political Thought subject refuses to use powerpoint presentation because she read in a study that “chalk talk” makes student remember and understand lessons better.

  • http://optimus6128.blogspot.com Optimus Knight

    This article is very relevant with my recent experience at studying somewhere outside my home country. In my past years, professors didn’t know much about computers and so slides was something absent. In my recent studies it first seems to be positive, using new technology to present stuff instead of writting in the old blackboard, but now I see that most professors are doing the lecture extremely fast and it feels like they just present stuff out of the slides without giving the feeling that it’s their understanding.

    Although one thing that I always had a problem to cope with is keeping notes. I never ever kept notes. I don’t even keep now because I can’t do this and at the same time try to focus on the lecture and understand them at runtime. Some people are very good at keeping notes, for others this is a problem and maybe slides as pdf or printed would be a bliss (although I found out that sometimes the information in the slides are not enough or incomplete and you have to keep few notes near the slides to cope with).

  • http://www.teachsmart.org/ Lindsey

    Have you ever learned from a power point-type lesson on a SMART Board? It’s a world of difference. The board is engaging, and can even check student learning. Students can access the slide shows and print them out before class, to make following and learning an easier process.

  • http://finiteattentionspan.wordpress.com Chris Atherton

    Hi Carolyn,

    Fascinating debate; thanks for opening it up :)

    I’m a university lecturer in the UK and I’ve spent the last couple of years encouraging colleagues to take a leaf out of the Presentation Zen book and think harder about the stories they are telling, visually and verbally. There are many positive reasons to use slides in class, but it’s easy to let those get in the way of the real teaching and learning, and most instruction regarding the use of Powerpoint, etc, is about how to do basic things (change colours, add animation) and almost never about how to use it sensibly to manage people’s attention for what you are saying (this, btw, is essentially what my blog is about. Plug, plug.)

    If any other lecturers/faculty are (still) reading this, I’m currently collecting data from academics about their use of Powerpoint in teaching and would love more respondents; the survey takes about 10 minutes and can be found here (https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/XFJX3XZ)

    Cheers,

    Chris

  • http://karegivers.blogspot.com/ Sean

    Re. Richard O’Keefe… “Tell me how to do chalk-and-talk without being punished for violating student expectations and I’ll be all ears.”
    The key in my opinion is engaging the audience, and to do the chalk and talk w/o criticism, why not use a wiki or workspace to present the material? Unlimited links, graphics, quotes, discussion points… whatever, can be presented in an open-system style of lecture, and if you have a tablet or are using an interactive whiteboard, you can even write chalkboard style to the screen.
    At the end of the day, all who are interested get the URL to the site to peruse at their liesure, and anyone who wants to “take notes” during the lecture can do that too. The really great element of a wiki or workspace though is the continuity they provide. If you set up a site to start, and create a new page for each lecture you do, the whole deal marches on in a distributed learning format that doesn’t end when the lecture ends… great ideas and contributions don’t follow the same timeline as our 1 or 2 hour lectures.
    Check out:
    wikispaces.com
    pbworks.com
    for excellent (and free) web services to set up lectures this way

  • http://www.davidkhardman.com David Hardman

    What everyone seems to hate are lecturers who put too much text on their powerpoint slides and then proceed to just read it back to the class. However, I’ve noticed that when students are asked to give presentations to the class they do exactly the same thing, only worse. I suspect that people do this because they are worried about forgetting material in front of the class, either because they are just insecure or because they don’t know the material very well. My own powerpoint slides have become more minimalist as I have become more knowledgable and better able to deal with questions (including those for which I DON’T have an answer). My lectures are now more of a performance in which I try to keep people’s attention and to give them enthusiasm for the topic. Bullet point slides are interspersed with questions to the class, in-class exercises, and short YouTube clips relevant to the topic. This has led to improved feedback for me, but the flipside is that student performance has remained pretty static. Ultimately, I’m not convinced that lectures – of whatever presentation format – have a big effect on students’ learning, at least not within the course of a single semester. Rather, it’s the work that students do outside of class that matters, principally reading, note-making, elaborative rehearsal, and engaging in self-testing.

  • http://n/a gaseaslover

    I am a high school teacher, and I’ve also been a graduate student (3 advanced degrees). I despise powerpoint. I never use it in my classes, and I HATE when a professor MANDATES that I must use it in presentations. It never works well for me (I’ll test it at home – works great with the audio/visuals I’ve added – get to class and using the same computer, nothing works….) and I find it limited. There are so many other options for doing presentations (http://prezi.com/ is one that I’ve used that is very visually oriented) that ppts are truly limiting, particularly as you describe them. And it IS unfortunate that almost every single textbook – even at the high school level, has “pre-made” powerpoints that almost every teacher will use.
    If you are a professor, and you want to use more technology to be more interactive in your classes, take a look at some work done by Dr. Punya Mishra (http://punya.educ.msu.edu/research/tpck/) on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Technology is ONLY the tool (as many have stated), but the integration to mesh the content knowledge and the teaching ability is difficult. I think ppt is a technology/software that is currently holding us back from truly working well with technology to create an interactive environment. Students learn by DOING – and doing = thinking. It does not need to be kinesthetic. If all students are “doing” is copying down notes or writing verbatim what is being lectured on, then they are probably not internalizing the information, nor are they making connections to the content. The old saying “if you don’t use it, you lose it” is particularly true when learning new material.
    Another great resource is Novak’s “Learning How to Learn” – if you are a teacher or professor, this is something you should read, earmark, and refer back to frequently. Yes, it is science-based (I am a science teacher), but I think it’s applicable to any subject area.
    Thanks for the post, and I enjoyed reading the comments. Re-affirms that what I am doing in my classroom is probably for the best :)
    Oh – and for those professors who have multiple classes – keep in mind that high school teachers have 5-6 classes of students each and every day – not just 2 or 3 times per week. We are often grading many more papers and tests (as we give tests and other assessments more frequently, and in my case – labs) and we have NO grad students assisting us – it’s all us. We don’t have 3-4 hours of office time each day. Granted, I’m not expected to do research, but I have done research as a part of my advanced degrees, and done significant grant writing. So, if I can get away from using ppts in my classes that meet daily, I think you can too. I think it actually takes LESS time to prep my own stuff than to read through the publisher’s ppts to familiarize myself with their info. Plus, I never like how textbooks are laid out to begin with and almost NEVER go sequentially through it. As a result, I have to create my own materials – well worth the effort even though it does consume considerable amounts of time.

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  • http://www.m62.net Jessica

    As a recent graduate, it has surprised me to discover just how big a problem this is in academia. It seems I was in the (lucky!) minority who weren’t subjected to death by PowerPoint in lectures. The few lecturers in my school (English) who used PowerPoint did so to support a point being made (e.g. showing a seventeenth century painting depicting a scene from Shakespeare) and avoided bullet points entirely.

    I’d agree that PowerPoint promotes bad habits – when used correctly. But this could be argued for any implement (as demonstrated in the ‘guns don’t kill people’ cliche).

    We have written a recent article on this very subject, which suggests potential solutions for lecturers who wish to use PowerPoint, without boring their audiences.

    http://www.m62.net/presentation-theory/presentation-best-practice/powerpoint-in-education-academic-presentations/

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  • http://fem-orgasm.net/ fem-orgasm.net

    The writer has written a superior article. I got your point and there is nothing to argue about. It is like the following universal truth that you can not disagree with: The truth is no one knows the truth. I will be back.

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  • Chris

    I agree with this mostly. But I think that professors posting the slides before class and then elaborating is the way things should go, and here’s why. If you actually do what is expected, you are supposed to read the book before class and then the professor’s lecture is designed to point out the most important points from what you read. But reading the book was expected to give you some background. The slides are no different, you should read the slides to get the background and then the professor elaborates.

    Also as far as the notes in class it shouldn’t matter that much. You should be reviewing your notes before exams anyway. Whether they are powerpoint slides or handwritten notes, after the first 2 or 3 reviews it shouldn’t matter. Even if you remember nothing from taking notes your 2-3 reviews should more than make up for that. Also while in class whether you take notes or not, you are still hearing the lecture. Although taking notes should help you to stay focused if the subject is super boring….I used it at a business meeting where a demonstration was so boring I was going to fall asleep….I just started taking notes and that forced me to pay attention. In that, when suffering “death by powerpoint” taking notes anyway might help. If the professor is better and doesn’t blindly read slides, then it may be fine not to takenotes at all…

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  • great stuff

    stop whining and learn to adapt.

  • soy

    Some professors say ‘Pay attention to the slides, I’ll give you time to take notes later.”
    But they never :<

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  • http://prowebber.in Варул

    Да качество наверное не очень…смотреть не буду.
    Очень люблю!
    Как специалист, могу оказать помощь. Вместе мы сможем прийти к правильному ответу.
    В этом что-то есть. Буду знать, большое спасибо за помощь в этом вопросе.
    Не могу сейчас принять участие в дискуссии – нет свободного времени. Буду свободен – обязательно выскажу своё мнение.

  • http://tellemir.ru/ algoDayRogkap

    Интернет-магазин телевизоров и плазменных панелей